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?What is the 9K330 Tor short-range air defense system


?What is the 9K330 Tor short-range air defense system




Brief

The Tor (Russian: Тор; English: torus[2]) is an all-weather low to medium altitude, short-range surface-to-air missile system designed for destroying airplanes, helicopters, cruise missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles and short-range ballistic threats (anti-munitions). Originally developed by the Soviet Union under the GRAU designation 9K330 Tor, the system is commonly known by its NATO reporting name, SA-15 "Gauntlet". A navalized variant was developed under the name 3K95 "Kinzhal", also known as the SA-N-9 "Gauntlet". Tor was designed to shoot down guided weapons like the AGM-86 ALCM and BGM-34[3] day and night, in bad weather and jamming situations.[4] Tor can detect targets while on the move. The vehicle must stop intermittently when firing,[5][6] although trials are being conducted to eliminate this restriction.[7]

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informations


9K330 Tor
NATO reporting name: SA-15 "Gauntlet"
Tor-M1 SAM (2).jpg
9K330 TLAR (rear view of the chassis)
TypeTracked SAM system
Place of originSoviet Union/Russia
Service history
In service1986–present
Used bySee list of operators
Production history
DesignerAlmaz-Antey :
Antey design bureau (lead designer)
MKB Fakel (missile designer)
MNIIRE Altair (naval version designer)
Designed1975
ManufacturerIEMZ Kupol
Metrowagonmash (GM chassis designer),
MZKT (wheeled chassis designer)
Produced1983–present
VariantsTor, Tor-M1, Tor-M2, Tor-M1-2U
Specifications (Tor-M1)
Mass34 tons
Length7.5 m
Width3.3 m
Height5.1 m (radar mast unstowed)
Crew3

Main
armament
9M330, 9M331
EngineV-12 diesel
618 kW (830 hp)
Transmissionhydromechanical
Suspensiontorsion bar
Ground clearance450 mm
Operational
range
25 km[1]
Maximum speed65 km / h

Operators

Current operators:
 Algeria – Tor M2E, deliveries in 2018

 Azerbaijan – Several batteries of Tor-M2E

 Armenia – At least 2 combat vehicles procured in 2019

 Belarus – 2 batteries (4 vehicles each) delivered as of 10 January 2013. Third battery delivered in 2013.[73][74] +5 Tor-M2K ordered in 2016 and delivered in 2018.[75][76] Additional systems were delivered and ordered in 2016 and 2017.[77] 5 batteries of Tor-M2EK as of late 2018[citation needed]

 China – 35[78] 60 9К331 «Tor-M1» in 2013.[79] Superseded by the HQ-17

 Cyprus – 6

 Egypt – 16 M1s[80][81]+ at least one M2s in service

 Greece – 25 systems, 100 CVS, 84 Hellenic Army, 16 Hellenic Air Force

 Iran – 29

 Myanmar – Three battalions of Tor-M1 missile systems are deployed in a point-defence role for critical areas



 Russia – 171 116 Tor-M1-2Us and M2s were delivered in 2012–2017.[] 6 Battalions of Tor-M2 consisting of 12 combat vehicles each were delivered as of 2019.[90] More Tor-M2 (9K332) and Tor-M2DT (9K331MDT) in production

 Ukraine – 6 were spotted at 2018 Independence Day Parade

 Venezuela – 12 in 2012,[94] later +26 on order[

Additional information

Development
The development of the Tor missile system started on 4 February 1975, in response to the directives of the Central Committee of the CPSU. Initiated as a successor to the 9K33 Osa (NATO reporting name SA-8 "Gecko"), development of the land based version was conducted in parallel with the naval variant of the system (3K95 Kinzhal/SA-N-9 "Gauntlet"), to be installed on a number of upcoming ship classes, including the Kirov-class battlecruisers,[3] and retrofitted onto older ships. Responsibility for development was given to the Antey design bureau (headed by V.P. Efremov), the missiles designed by MKB Fakel (under P.D. Grushin) and the Altair design bureau (headed by S.A. Fadeyev) was responsible for the development of Kinzhal.[3] All the developers and manufacturers of the Tor missile system unified into Almaz-Antey in 2002

2022 Russo-Ukrainian War
In 2022, Tor missiles are being used by the Russian armed forces during its invasion of Ukraine. Several systems were reportedly abandoned by the Russian army after being stuck in mud, some of them photographed by individuals. One such photo, featuring a man named "Igor", garnered considerable attention on Twitter

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